疑问句 Questions

28 Feb
具有疑问句调,表示提问的句子叫疑问句。疑问句以问号“?”结尾。疑问句可以分为四类:一般疑问句,特殊疑问句,选择疑问句和正反疑问句。
An interrogative sentence is one used to ask a question which is uttered in the interrogative tone and a question mark “?” is written at the end. There are 4 types of commonly used interrogative sentences: general questions; special questions; alternative questions and affirmative-negative questions.
句式结构 Sentence Structure
基本句式如下:
1. 一般疑问句:在陈述句句尾加上表示疑问的语气助词“吗”,问话人希望得到肯定或否定的答复。
General questions: A question formed by adding the interrogative particle “吗” at the end of a declarative sentence (affirmative or negative) to express that the questioner is expecting an affirmative or negative answer.
主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 吗?
S + V + O + 吗?
Tā qù Běijīng ma?
他 去 北京 吗?
2. 特殊疑问句:在陈述句中要着重询问的部分用疑问代词所构成的疑问句,是特殊疑问句。疑问代词放在要求答案的位置上。
Special questions: This kind of interrogative sentences is formed by replacing the element in a statement that is asked about with an interrogative pronoun. The interrogative pronoun is positioned where the answer is expected.
Jīntiān shuí lái shàngbān?
今天谁来上班?
3. 选择疑问句:用连词“还是”并列几种情况,要求答话人选择一项回答的疑问句,叫选择疑问句。
This is a question in which several alternatives are paralleled by the conjunction “还是” for the answer to choose.
Nǐ xǐhuan yóuyǒng háishì pǎobù?
你喜欢游泳还是跑步?
4. 正反疑问句:将谓语动词中的动词或形容词的肯定式和否定式并列,就构成了正反疑问句。
This is a question formed by putting the affirmative and negative forms of the predicate together and the answer expected is either affirmative or negative.
Zhège diànyǐng hǎobuhǎo?
这个电影好不好?
Tā jīntiān láibulái?
他今天来不来?
注意 Attention
1. 一般疑问句的词序跟陈述句的完全一样。
e.g.
Tā shì xuésheng ma?
他是学生吗?√
Shì tā xuésheng ma?
是他学生吗?×
2. 特殊疑问句句尾不加“吗”。
e.g.
Nǐ zhùzài nǎr?
你住在哪儿?√
Nǐ zhùzài nǎr ma?
你住在哪儿吗?×
3. 回答选择疑问句时,也可以不加以选择,而是全部肯定或全部否定。
e.g.
Nǐ mǎi zhèběnshū háishì nàběnshū? Dōu mǎi/ Dōu bùmǎi
你买这本书还是那本书?都买/都不买
4. 正反疑问句提问时,谓语前边一般不能带表示程度的副词状语。
e.g.
Nǐ de gōngzuò hǎobuhǎo?
你的工作好不好?√
Nǐ de gōngzuò fēicháng hǎobuhǎo?
你的工作非常好不好?×
5. 在正反疑问句里,如果谓语动词前边有助动词,就要并列助动词的肯定和否定形式,一定不能并列谓语的肯定和否定形式。
e.g.
Nǐ néngbunéng lái?
你能不能来?√
Nǐ néng láibulái?
你能来不来?×
6. 正反疑问句句尾可以用语气助词“呢”或“啊”,表示缓和语气,但是不能加“吗”。
e.g.
Tāyǒuméiyǒu nǚpéngyou ne?
他有没有女朋友呢?√
Tā yǒuméiyǒu nǚpéngyou ma?
他有没有女朋友吗?×
练习 Exercises
1. 针对划线部分提问Ask questions about the underlined parts
Wǒ qù Běijīng xuéxí hànyǔ.
(1). 我去北京学习汉语。
Wǒ qù Běijīng xuéxí hànyǔ.
(2). 我去北京学习汉语。
Wǒ qù Běijīng xuéxí hànyǔ.
(3). 我去北京学习汉语。
2. 改错Write down the correct sentences
Wǒ néng qùbuqù?
(1). 我能去不去?
Shì tā lǎoshī ma?
(2). 是他老师吗?
Tā míngtiān láibulái ma?
(3). 他明天来不来吗?
Shuí shì Xiǎo Wáng ma?
(4). 谁是小王吗?
Tā shífēn xǐhuanbuxǐhuan xuéxí hànyǔ?
(5). 他十分喜欢不喜欢学习汉语?
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